Known Issues and Workarounds

Don’t Call Twisted APIs from non-Twisted threads

As is the case in any Twisted program, you should never call Twisted APIs (e.g. reactor.callLater) from non-Twisted threads. Only call Twisted APIs from functions decorated by @wait_for and friends.

Preventing deadlocks on shutdown

To ensure a timely process exit, during reactor shutdown Crochet will try to interrupt calls to EventualResult.wait() or functions decorated with @wait_for with a crochet.ReactorStopped exception. This is still not a complete solution, unfortunately. If you are shutting down a thread pool as part of Twisted’s reactor shutdown, this will wait until all threads are done. If you’re blocking indefinitely, this may rely on Crochet interrupting those blocking calls... but Crochet’s shutdown may be delayed until the thread pool finishes shutting down, depending on the ordering of shutdown events.

The solution is to interrupt all blocking calls yourself. You can do this by firing or canceling any Deferred instances you are waiting on as part of your application shutdown, and do so before you stop any thread pools.

Reducing Twisted log messages

Twisted can be rather verbose with its log messages. If you wish to reduce the message flow you can limit them to error messages only:

import logging

Missing tracebacks

In order to prevent massive memory leaks, Twisted currently wipes out the traceback from exceptions it captures (see for ideas on improving this). This means that often exceptions re-raised by Crochet will be missing their tracebacks. You can however get access to a string version of the traceback, suitable for logging, from EventualResult objects returned by @run_in_reactor-wrapped functions:

from crochet import run_in_reactor, TimeoutError

def download_page(url):
    from twisted.web.client import getPage
    return getPage(url)

result = download_page("")
    page = result.wait(timeout=1000)
except TimeoutError:
    # Handle timeout ...
    # Something else happened:

uWSGI, multiprocessing, Celery

uWSGI, the standard library library and Celery by default use fork() without exec() to create child processes on Unix systems. This means they effectively clone a running parent Python process, preserving all existing imported modules. This is a fundamentally broken thing to do, e.g. it breaks the standard library’s logging package. It also breaks Crochet.

You have two options for dealing with this problem. The ideal solution is to avoid this “feature”:

Use the --lazy-apps command-line option.
Use the spawn (or possibly forkserver) start methods when using Python 3. See for more details.

Alternatively, you can ensure you only start Crochet inside the child process:

Only run crochet.setup() inside the WSGI application function.
Only run crochet.setup() in the child process.
Only run crochet.setup() inside tasks.